家长资源

Family Vacation Tips – Tutor Time International Nursery and Kindergarten

2017-01-25
While vacations are a great time to experience new things and bond as a family, they can also present a new variety of family challenges. Here are five tips to help you, and your family.


Start Early: Begin the day’s activities after a quick breakfast. Crowds will be light and your children’s energy will go toward the activity, not battling crowds at a buffet restaurant.
Schedule Light: One or two shows, museum visits or special sites are probably all your children can handle in one day. More than that and you risk serious activity overload.
Give Them Options: Although children may not pick the most glamorous restaurant or the trendiest art gallery, letting them play a part in vacation planning increases attention spans and agreeability.
Food is Important: Planning ahead and packing favorite snacks is useful when your hungry child gets picky at the fancy French bistro where you decide to grab lunch. Food is essential for energy, and energy is a vital piece of successful family excursions.
Stick to Routines: This applies especially for younger travelers. Consistent meal times and nap times, combined with keeping up familiar habits, like reading a book before bed, keeps the stressors of unfamiliarity to a minimum.

教幼儿如何听从指示

2016-09-23
在做父母的时候,没有什么比孩子不听话更气人的事了。学习按照指示行动是一项重要的技能,同时也是学校成功的关键。幼儿在满18个月时,他幼稚般的思维能力开始发生巨大的变化,开始更能理解周围的世界,比如一些较为抽象的事物,此时的他们开始能遵守简单的指示。 24个月大的时候,大部分的幼儿都能遵从一两个简单的指示。然而,不幸的是许多家长用来教导的方式不仅不太有效,更有可能本末倒置。以下是一些常见的错误 :

1) 不要说『不可以! 』

鼓励是比责备更能对幼儿起到积极效果的语言,幼儿很容易误解责备后的意思。

2)说道理没有任何用处

6岁以下的儿童仍不太能理解「为什么一定要这样做」的观点。例如:「要把玩完的玩具收拾好,不然会伤到自己。」这种解释幼儿就不太能理解,因为他们还不能预期未来的后果,所以不会积极地完成任务。

3)反复重复指示不会起到任何作用

当孩儿不听指示时,家长有可能会变得烦躁而开始大声责备,这是一种不好的做法,这样会传达一个反面的信息给儿童,那就是他们只会直到父母提高声量来责备时才需要听从指示。

4)避免空洞的威胁
制造假象的威胁是另一种常见的错误。幼儿只能确切真实的明白,如果他们不按照指示去做,会发生什么事,而不是冲动虚假的威胁。

只有当家长始终如一地贯彻要求,多次重复正确的指示时,幼儿才会懂得要一贯地遵从这些指示。当一个要求幼儿已经被提醒了15次,他自然而然就会遵从了!

以下是一些鼓励幼儿更加愿意遵从指示的建议:

1) 给简单、简洁、直接的指示
当你给完指示后,可以叫孩儿重复一次指示的内容以确保他们是否真的理解了指示的要求。

2)给具体的指示
仔细告诉幼儿你想她做的是什么。幼儿对模糊的指示并不能完全的理解。例如:可以将 「清洁房间」变成「将玩具放回到玩具箱中」,这样的指示会令儿童完全明白你的要求。

3) 引起幼儿的注意
降低自己的身高到与幼儿相同的高度,并要保持和幼儿的眼神交流,因为他们在玩的时候不会想到需要聆听。

4)不要有不切实际的期望
难道房子真的会全天都一尘不染吗?我们的期望要切合实际,不断地唠叨幼儿,只会使他们更加反感并不遵循家长的指示。

5)给幼儿选择的权利
当幼儿被问到「你想要洗澡还是玩玩具?」时,他们会有成就感,觉得自己拥有发言权,更有可能完成任务。要尽量回避用一些让幼儿感到自己不需要做的语句,如:「你能收拾好你的玩具吗?」

6)与幼儿玩游戏
教幼儿玩『红绿灯』,从而他们会知道红色表示停止,黄色表示思考前往的方向是否正确,而绿色就可以做被问要做的事。如果你需要幼儿迅速地准备好,可以展开竞赛,比一比谁更快。

7)承认幼儿积极的行为和背后的努力
一定要让幼儿感到他们的努力被认同了,这样会巩固正确的做法和指示。

同样重要的是要记得幼儿在学校一整天都是在听从指示,因而家长在家中的行为可谓是一种身教,使幼儿知道在学校应该如何与他人交流。

 

四种教幼儿共享的方法

2016-09-22
为什么让幼儿分享会这样困难?简单地说,幼儿的大脑还没有领悟的耐心、同情心和共享这些概念的能力。 “两岁以下的儿童往往难以共享,因为他们尚未开发同情的感觉。” Tutor time教育专家Ms Bonifield 说。 “他们往往是舒服地与其他孩子一起独自玩自己的游戏,却没有大家一起玩。”


可是我们仍然可以教幼儿利用每天玩耍的经验,给他们机会学习分享! “ 家庭和教师都可以鼓励幼儿通过模拟活动,学习慷慨与别人分享,” Bonifield解释说。下面是如何做到这一点的例子:


1. 捐赠食物到食物银行:最能鼓励幼儿分享的有效方法,就是创建一个活动,让幼儿看到共享和分享的益处。例如:家长可以跟幼儿说:“如果我们有分享给那些有需要的家庭,他们会很高兴的。”


2. 一起玩:让幼儿有跟同伴玩的机会,然后把握及创造机会教幼儿学习分享。例如: 烘烤美味的食物,当幼儿的朋友来到时,热情款待并鼓励幼儿与大家分享 。

3. 设置一个定时器:“稍等几分钟”。幼儿们还小,没有时间概念,所以不会理解“等一下”的真正含义。让他们观察一个计时器三、五分钟,就能开发他们的时间感,帮助他们对时间的理解!

4. 尊重幼儿的极限:“一般来说,这个年龄段的幼儿不会自然明白或考虑别人的感受。”Bonifield说。 “即使三、四岁的孩子也才能选择性的分享。

他们往往会守护对他们来说那些最重要的玩具和物品”,最好把这些让孩子珍惜的物品和玩具放在他们遥不可及的地方。这样,您的孩子将会很高兴,可以更开心地和其他幼儿分享他的其他玩具!

帮助孩子有效地沟通

2016-09-20
沟通可以让信息在两个或更多的人之间得以分享,包括口头和非口头形式。学习沟通是儿童早期发展的主要任务之一,对幼儿的成长至关重要。沟通可让幼儿和生活中所接触的人进行互动,并有自己的社交圈,在情感和生理的需求上得到满足。幼儿时期,家庭和教师对刺激和培养孩子们的沟通能力是至关重要的。与幼童积极沟通,帮助他们建立自信,并与他人建立建设性的关系。孩子们是通过观察父母,以及其他身边的人进行学习交流。

 

以下介绍几种与幼儿积极沟通的方法:

1) 沟通时要和幼儿同一个水平高度,这一点非常重要。你要蹲下来和幼儿同样身高,也要使用他们的语言去沟通。

2)问正面的问题。试着问以:“什么”、“哪里”、“谁”或“怎么样。”开头的开放式问题。

3)表达自己的想法和感受。当与孩子沟通时,家长可以通过分享自己的感受,如道德和价值观,教幼儿学习沟通。


在幼儿时期培养沟通能力是非常重要的,甚至应该从婴儿出生开始。婴幼儿会使用非语言,包括:面部表情、眼睛接触以及声音。如:大笑、咿呀学语和哭泣等。为了鼓励婴幼儿沟通,对他们的努力应加以赞扬。例如,“ 当我挠你的脚趾,你喜欢,你在笑。”这也有利于幼儿学习真实的单词,而不是宝宝用语!


随着孩子的成长,他们开始学会用语言进行交流。幼儿用手势和一个或两个词造句,有情感表达和肢体动作交流。

 

这里有一些方法鼓励孩子沟通:


1 )在他们使用单、双字的信息上加以展开和延伸,围绕他们的词语说句子。例如:“热,你说的对!汤是热的。”

2 )标签自己的情绪。例如:“当你摔倒并膝盖受伤,你会感到难过。”

3 )在玩的时候,可以用语言形容一下自己在做什么。例如:“你把球扔到圈里,现在它滚远了,可以让它再反弹回到客厅吗?”


当幼儿长大,学龄前儿童开始会用全面、语法正确的句子说话。为了鼓励学龄前儿童沟通,请尝试以下方法:


1 )对新老词汇,提供新词,以扩大他们的视野例如:“我真的疯了。我气坏了。”

2 )询问过去的事件,探测详细信息,并提供新的词语加强描述。例如:“你今天在学校和谁玩?你们在一起做了什么?”

New Dietary Advice for 2016: What Parents Need to Know

2016-01-11
By Katie Serbinski, MS, RD

There’s more to food than just taste. Or so that’s what I’ve learned in my six years of studying nutrition science. Food provides our bodies with the nutrients it needs to function, just like fuel to a car. But what foods constitute as healthy? How can you maintain a healthy diet without compromising taste and without having to follow the latest fad diet (or skipping dessert)? That’s where the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans come in. The guidelines have clear implications for federal nutrition policy, influencing everything from the national school lunch program to the advice you get at the doctor’s office.

Much of the dietary advice in the new guidelines remains unchanged such as eating more fruits and vegetables, keeping your splurges sensible, and embracing balance, variety, and moderation. But every five years, a new set of guidelines sheds more light on nutrition science details and updates what we know about eating right. The 2015 Guidelines encourage individuals and families to eat more of these foods:


A variety of vegetables, including dark green, red and orange, and legumes (beans and peas)
Fruits, especially whole fruits
Grains, at least half of which are whole grains
Fat-free or low-fat dairy, including milk, yogurt, cheese, and/or fortified soy beverages
A variety of protein foods, including lean meats and poultry, seafood, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), soy products, and nuts and seeds
Oils, including those from plants: canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower. Oils are also in nuts, seeds, seafood, olives, and avocados


They also advise us moderate caffeine and alcohol intake, limit sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, and limit foods high in sodium. While many of these dietary recommendations remain the same, here are the three major changes:


Instead of reducing sugar intake, the new guidelines give us a sugar LIMIT. It recommends reducing added sugar (the kind put in foods during processing, not the natural kind found in fruit and dairy) to no more than 10 percent of daily calories. For someone on a 2,000-calorie diet, that’s about 50 grams or 12 teaspoons of added sugar a day. Most Americans get twice that.
There’s now no recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol (they used to recommend limiting it to 300mg per day) because new research suggests that the cholesterol we get from food doesn’t contribute to high blood cholesterol levels.
There is a focus on choosing plant-based proteins by replacing meat, poultry or eggs with seafood twice a week, and replacing some meat or poultry in mixed dishes with legumes, nuts, and seeds.


When looking at my own family’s eating habits, I find that there’s greater value in making small changes in our diet and lifestyle. For instance, I love making spaghetti sauce and adding in chopped mushrooms and carrots. We generally keep it to one sweet item per day and don’t have sugar sweetened beverages, except for special occasions. I also try to serve more unsaturated fats, especially those found in vegetable oils, fish and nuts. That being said, I certainly won’t be keeping a score sheet on whether or not my family eats perfectly. I want my family to enjoy meals together (and an occasional floret of broccoli, too)!

 

Katie Serbinski, MS, RD, is a registered dietitian and Mom of two boys under two. She’s the founder of Mom to Mom Nutrition, a healthy food and lifestyle blog where she shares her “me time” with other health-minded parents. On her blog, you’ll find simple, family-friendly recipes, tips for new parents, and realistic nutrition advice. Connect with Katie through email Katie@MomToMomNutrition.com or Twitter @MomNutrition.